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Vocational training in Germany

Ausbildung in Germany/Deutschland

Doing a dual training course is twice the fun, because it alternates practice and theory. Once you have completed your training, a variety of career prospects are open to you.

1. Double fun with theory and practice

It com¬bines theory and practice right from the start. It's an on-the-job training at a company, while one or two days a week, or several weeks at a time, are reserved for vocational school where you will learn about the theoreti¬cal principles that serve as the basis for your work. This dual system combining theory and practice will give you an ideal start into your job.

2. High demand of young talent

As companies across all industries are currently on the look¬out for trainees, your chances of securing a place in a voca¬tional training programme (Ausbildung in Germany) are excellent. In the year 2016 alone, 43,478 positions in vocational training could not be filled. Further information on how to successfully apply to a company can be found in the guide to "Vocational training in Germany".

3. Earning while learning

When you start a vocational training programme in Germany you will be earning money from day one throughtout the Ausbildung in Germany. Companies will pay you a salary for the work you do as part of your course while Ausbildung in Deutschland.

4. Good chances to get a permanent job

Vocational training(Ausbildung in Germany) may be your ticket to a career on the German labour market. Around two thirds of all trainees get a permanent job with their companies after completing vocational training.
Upon completion of your Ausbildung in Deutschland programme you will be fully quali¬fied in your profession and earn good money – and you will benefit from the fact that you already know your company, its operations and your colleagues.

5. Good career prospects

Vocational training makes you fit for the future. Profession¬als with a vocational qualification are in high demand on the German labour market after Ausbildung in Germany. In some fields, candidates with a vocational qualification are even more sought after than university graduates.


In Germany there is a special way of learning a trade: the Dual vocational training system. As part of the dual system, you will attend classes at a vocational school and receive on-the-job training at a company.

The dual vocational training system

Dual vocational training programmes offer plenty of opportunity for on-the-job training and work experience. Duration of Vocational training’s programmes are between two and three and a half years and comprise theoretical as well as practical elements. You will spend one or two days a week, or several weeks at once, at a vocational school to get theoretical knowledge and the rest of the time will be spent at a company to apply your new¬ly acquired knowledge in practice.
There are around 350 officially recognised training programmes in Germany. You can find out which on that might be by visiting one of the jobs and vocational training fairs which are organized in many German cities at different times in the year. Information on when and where the fairs take place are provided by the website Planet-Beruf.net.

Vocational training and pay

In Germany, candidates pursuing a vocational training pro¬gramme throughout the Ausbildung in Deutschland will get a monthly stipend from the company they work for i.e. around 795 Euros gross (Depending on occupation and region, your salary may be higher or lower during Ausbildung in Germany) For example, mechatronics engineering train¬ees earn 950 Euros gross per month on average. The stipend increases every year upto 100 Euros. Part of your wages will be deducted for social security contributions. Income will be subject to income tax. If you earn more than 8,354 Euros per year.
The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) has published a list of occupations and the respec¬tive salaries you receive as a trainee throughout the Ausbildung in Deutschland .

Stages of dual vocational training

Dual training programmes usually start on 1 August or 1 September each year. They comprise on-the-job training at a company and classes at a vocational school (Berufsschule). Classes include German, English and social studies. During your training programme, you are entitled to at least 24 working days or four weeks of annual leave. However, you may only take your leave during school holidays.

School-based vocational training

School-based vocational training throughout the Ausbildung in Deutschland differs from dual training in that you will spend less time training at a company. You will learn theory and practice of your future occupation at a voca¬tional school, called either Berufsfachschule or Berufskolleg. This form of voca¬tional training is very common in nursing, in the design/cre¬ative industry, and in the fields of business and engineering.
School-based vocational training throughout the Ausbildung in Germany usually lasts between one and three years. It is offered by state and private schools. Private schools often charge fees. In contrast to dual train¬ing programmes, you will not receive a salary during school-based vocational training. The only exception is healthcare/ nursing where trainees will work in hospitals or nursing homes for extended periods of on-the-job training. These trainees will receive a salary for the entire course of their training programme. For example: as a trainee nurse you will earn 956 Euros/month gross in your first year, 1017 Euros in your second, and 1118 Euros in your third year.

Dual vocational degrees

A dual vocational degree (ausbildungsintegriertes duales Studium) throughout the Ausbildung in Deutschland is a special form of degree programme. It integrates studies at a higher education institution such as a university or Berufsakademie and on-the-job training at a company. This means that you will obtain both a degree and a recognised Professional qualification. This kind of integrated dual degree course is particularly common in the areas of business and en¬gineering (e.g. business studies, mechanical engineering or IT).
In contrast to regular university degree programmes, dual vocational degrees do not primarily focus on academic stud¬ies. In addition to the theory that is taught at a higher edu¬cation institution or Berufsakademie, students also undergo on-the-job training at a company. This provides them with the necessary work experience that opens up excellent career op¬portunities. Moreover, students receive a stipend like any other trainee during the time they work for their company. Dual vocational degree programmes (Ausbildung in Germany) usually last between three and five years. In most cases, the vocational part is limited to two years to make sure that there is enough time for the academic part. You can only participate in this kind of degree course if you have the required entrance qualification for German universities. The first step is to apply at a com¬pany that will be responsible for your practical training. Then you enrol for a degree course at the university your company cooperates with.

3 TIPS for the foreign trainees

  1. Get involved with the country and the people
  2. Go out and talk to people
  3. Adapt, but don’t dissimulate

"Be open to the people and culture"


If you want to learn a trade in Germany, there are certain re¬quirements you have to meet. For example, you may need a long-term visa and adequate German language skills.

Visa: Citizens from India

To apply for a visa for vocational training, submit the following:
(Please prepare copies and bring two identical sets)

Application form:
In German or English, completed and signed by hand. No applications for Schengen visas!

Passport + copies (all relevant pages)
At least two blank pages. Please note that the validity of the passport must exceed the duration of the visa by at least three months please copy the laminated data page and all pages containing visas, stamps or entries.

3 Identical biometric passport photos, not older than 6 months

Signed training contract:
This should include details of the nature, content and duration of the training envisaged. In the case of in-company training, the working time, the place of work and the amount of the remuneration (at least 939, - Euro/gross per month) must also be stated.
Unless the content of the training is specified in the contract, a separate training plan must be submitted.
If the training salary is lower according to the contract, the difference for the entire training must be proven in advance by:

  1. A formal declaration of commitment acc. Sections 66 — 68 of the Residence Act, in which a third party undertakes in writing to bear the costs (aliens' offices in Germany provide appropriate forms).
  2. The declaration of commitment must include a reference to the intended purpose and duration of the stay and must be “proven” of financial standing. (The word “credible” is not sufficient for a longer stay.)
  3. Or:
  4. By paying the required amount into a blocked account in Germany. Original confirmation from the bank must be provided.

Proof of qualification: e. g. diplomas, certificates

Proof of German proficiency:
(Original + 2 copies) — Proof of your German proficiency is provided by presenting a language certificate with level B1 of the European Framework of reference.
The certificate must be issued by the Goethe-Institut, a Telc or ECL-certified language school or the Austrian Institute (ÖSD). OR:
Confirmation from the training institution that the language proficiency has already been tested and is adequate. OR: Confirmation of participation for German language courses (original + 2 copies) – If a language course is preceded by the in-company training, please provide a corresponding confirmation of participation. This must show that the language course leads to the acquisition of the language skills required for vocational training or is completed with the aim of starting training.

Curriculum vitae:
in particular with a description of previous education and, if applicable, professional activity

Certificate of statutory health insurance from Germany valid from the date of employment.

Please note: If not already included in the compulsory health insurance, a separate travel health insurance must be presented. This must be valid for the period from arrival in Germany to the beginning of the apprenticeship.

— Visa fee 75,— Euro
When applying for a visa you have to prove that you are capable of paying for your living, no matter if you are pursuing a dual or school-based vocational training course. This is particularly im¬portant when you start a school-based training programme, be¬cause on most of the programmes you won’t be earning money.

Am I allowed to work in another job while pursuing voca¬tional training?
Yes, you are allowed to work up to ten hours per week in a job that is not related to your vocational training. For example, you may work at a restaurant while training as a mechatronics engineer.

School—leaving certificates
What kind of school—leaving certificate you need for taking up vocational training in Germany depends on the occupation and programme you’re interested in:
  • Dual vocational training:
  • You do not need a school—leaving certificate in order to start training at a company in Germa¬ny. Each company decides at its own discretion which qual¬ifications their candidates need.
  • School-based vocational training:
  • In order to be admitted to a course at a Berufsfachschule or Berufskolleg you will need to have completed general education and provide a school—leaving certificate from a school equivalent to either a Gymnasium or Realschule. For some vocational training programmes you also need to prove that you already have some work experience in that area (e.g. through an intern¬ship).
  • Dual vocational degrees:
  • In order to be admitted to a dual vocational degree combining academic studies and train¬ing in a company, you need a university entrance qualifica¬tion. In addition, you have to sign a training contract with a company.


Vocational training in Germany will give you a head start into your career. We’d like to introduce you to five types of voca¬tional training in jobs for which German companies are cur¬rently trying to find staff
An overview of the training sector

  • Training in the automotive industry
  • Training in construction and architecture
  • Training in the pharmaceutical and chemical sector
  • Training in the office
  • Retail training
  • Education in finance
  • Training in craft
  • Training in journalism
  • Training in human resources
  • Training in tourism
  • Training in sales
  • Public service training
  • Training in nursing and health
  • Training in advertising and marketing
  • Training in gastronomy
  • Training in IT and EDP
  • Training in the real estate industry
  • Training in industry
  • Training in agriculture
  • Training in logistics
  • Training in the fashion industry
  • Training in the textile industry
  • Training in administration

Sn. Name of the training Duration
1. Training as a geriatric nurse 3 years
2. Training to become an anaesthesiologist assistant 3-5 years
3. Training as tailor of alterations 2 years
4. Training as a plant mechanic 3.5 years
5. Training as a system mechanic for sanitary, heating and air conditioning technology 3.5 years
6. Training as an asphalt paver 3 years
7. Training as a computer science assistant 2 years
8. Training as a geo-visualization assistant 3 years
9. Training as a processing mechanic 3 years
10. Training as an optician 3 years
11. Training to become a skilled worker 2 years
12. Training as a machine specialist FR machine mechatronics 3 years
13. Apprenticeship as an automobile salesman 3 years
14. Training as a baker 3 years
15. Training as a bank clerk 3 years
16. Training as a construction equipment operator 3 years
17. Training as a building material tester 3 years
18. Training as a building and object coater 2 years
18. Training as a structural sealer 3 years
20. Training as a building mechanic for demolition and concrete cutting technology 3 years
21. Training as a draftsman 3 years
22. Apprenticeship as a tank and apparatus builder 3.5 years
23. Training as a miner and machinist in the field of transport and maintenance 2 years
24. Training as a mining technologist 2 years
25. Training to become a professional driver 3 years
26. Training to become a funeral specialist 3 years
27. Training as a concrete and reinforced concrete worker 3 years
28. Training as a precast concrete maker 3 years
29. Training as a inland waterway skipper 3 years
30. Training as biological-technical assistant 3 years
31. Training as a brewer and maltster 3 years
32. Training as a bookbinder 3 years
33. Training as a bookseller 3 years
34. Training as a gunsmith 3 years
35. Training as chemical-technical assistant 2-3-4 years
36. Training as a roofer 3 years
37. Training to become a dietician 3 years
38. Training as a pharmacist 3 years
39. Apprenticeship as a boat builder 3.5 years
40. Training as a railway worker in operations service 3 years
41. Training as electronics technician for automation technology 3.5 years
42. Training as an electronics technician for industrial engineering 3 years
43. Training as an electronics technician for energy and building technology 3.5 years
44. Training as an electronics technician for building and infrastructure systems 3.5 years
45. Training as an electronics technician for devices and systems 3.5 years
46. Training as an electronics technician for information and systems technology 3.5 years
47. Training as an electronics technician for information and Telecommunications technology 3.5 years
48. Training as electronics technician for machines and drive technology 3.5 years
49. Training to become an occupational therapist 3 years
50. Training to become an educator 3-6 years
51. Training as a specialist for labor market services 3 years
52. Training as a specialist for swimming pools 3 years
53. Training as a specialist in media and information services 3 years
54. Training as IT specialist - application development 3 years
55. Training as IT specialist - system integration 3 years
56. Training as a specialist in wastewater technology 3 years
57. Training to become a specialist in fruit juice technology 3 years
58. Training to become a specialist in courier, express and postal services 2 years
59. Training as a specialist in warehouse logistics 3 years
60. Training as a specialist in food technology 3 years
61. Training as a specialist in furniture, kitchen and moving services 3 years
62. Training as a specialist for pipe, sewer and industrial service 3 years
63. Training to become a specialist in protection and security 3 years
64. Training to become a specialist in event technology 3 years
65. Training as a specialist in driving operations 3 years
66. Training as a specialist in the hospitality industry 2 years
67. Training as a specialist in recycling and waste management 3 years
68. Training as a specialist in metal technology, specializing in construction technology 2 years
69. Training as a specialist in metal technology, specializing in assembly technology 2 years
70. Training as a specialist in water supply technology 3 years
71. Training as a warehouse clerk 2 years
72. Training as a specialist in system catering 3 years
73. Training as a salesman for the food trade 3 years
74. Training as a vehicle painter 3 years
75. Training as a precision optician 3.5 years
76. Training as a precision mechanic 3.5 years
77. Training as a production mechanic 3 years
78. Training as a butcher 3 years
79. Training as a tile, slab and mosaic layer 3 years
80. Training as a florist 3 years
81. Training as an aircraft mechanic 3 years
82. Training as an air traffic controller 3 years
83. Training as a forest manager 3 years
84. Training as a photographer 3 years
85. Training in hairdresser 3 years
86. Training as a gardener - gardening and landscaping 3 years
87. Training as a building cleaner 3 years
88. Training as a geometrician 3 years
89. Scaffolding training 3 years
90. Training as a designer for visual marketing 3 years
91. Training as a design assistant 2-3-4 years
92. Training as a health and child nurse 3 years
93. Training to become a nurse 3 years
94. Apprenticeship as a foundry mechanic 3 years
95. Training as a glazier 3 years
96. Training as a track construction 3 years
97. Apprenticeship as a goldsmith 3.5 years
98. Training as a commercial assistant 3 years
99. Training as a commercial specialist 3 years
100. Training as a housekeeper 3 years
101. Training to become a midwife / obstetrician 3 years
102. Training to become a building construction worker 2 years
103. Training as a wood and building protector 3 years
104. Training as a wood mechanic 3 years
105. Training as a hearing care professional 3 years
106. Training as a hotel manager 3 years
107. Training as a hotel clerk 3 years
108. Training to become a farrier 2.5 years
109. Training as an industrial electrician - industrial engineering 2 years
110. Training as an industrial clerk 3 years
111. Training as an industrial ceramist 3 years
112. Training as an industrial mechanic 3.5 years
113. Training to become an IT specialist 3 years
114. Training to become an information electronics technician 3.5 years
115. Training as an IT system electronics technician 3 years
116. Training as a sewer builder 3 years
117. Apprenticeship as a body and vehicle construction mechanic 3.5 years
118. Training as a businessman for tourism and leisure 3 years
119. Training as a vehicle mechatronics technician 3.5 years
120. Training as a plumber 3.5 years
121. Training as a chef (cook ) 3 years
122. Training as a pastry chef 3 years
123. Training as a construction mechanic 3 years
124. Training as an agricultural and construction machinery mechatronics technician 3 years
125. Training as a farmer 3 years
126. Training as a food inspector 2 years
127. Training as a speech therapist 3 years
128. Apprenticeship as a painter and varnisher 3 years
129. Training as a machine and plant operator 3 years
130. Training as a makeup artist 3 years
131. Training as a bespoke tailor 3 years
132. Training as a mathematical-technical software developer 3 years
133. Training as a bricklayer 3 years
134. Training as a mechanic specializing in tire vulcanization technology 3 years
135. Training as a mechatronics technician 3.5 years
136. Training as a mechatronics technician for refrigeration technology 3.5 years
137. Training as media designer for digital and print FR design and technology 3 years
138. Training as a digital & print media clerk 3 years
139. Training as a media technologist for printing 3 years
140. Training as a media technologist for print processing 3 years
141. Training as a media technologist for screen printing 3 years
142. Training as a medical-technical laboratory assistant 2 years
143. Training as a medical assistant 3 years
144. Training as a metal worker 3.5 years
145. Training as a micro technologist 3 years
146. Training as a milk technologist 3 years
147. Training as a dairy laboratory technician 3 years
148. Training as a fashion designer 2-3 years
149. Training to become an emergency paramedic 3 years
150. Training as a surface coater 3 years
151. Training as a surgical technician 3 years
152. Training as an orthopedic shoemaker 3 years
153. Training as an orthopedic technician 3 years
154. Training as a packaging technologist 3 years
155. Training as a paper technologist 3 years


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